Center for Faculty Excellence
Master Teacher Program (MTP)
The original structure of Bloom’s Taxonomy of the thinking or cognitive domain (Bloom, Engelhart, Frost, Hill, & Krathwolh, 1956):
- Knowledge: Remembering, recognizing, repeating information, without necessarily understanding, using, or changing it.
- Comprehension: Being able to describe information; does not require relation to other information.
- Application: Using a general concept to solve a particular problem.
- Analysis: Critical look at the parts of a whole; being able to break information down into its parts.
- Synthesis: The use of information in a new way; the ability to create something new by combining different ideas.
- Evaluation: Judgment of the value of information, or judgment of the use/application of different methods in a specific situation.
Higher level objectives require mastery of lower level objectives.
The first major revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy was published in 2001 (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). The six basic levels have been reordered and three names were changed to reflect the cognitive processes involved. As well, the model is now two-dimensional, and includes 4 kinds of knowledge, which are acted upon by 6 kinds of cognitive processes. The new model also emphasizes action verbs to promote effective design of tests and assignments.
- The new model includes four kinds of knowledge:
The new model includes six cognitive processes:
- Factual knowledge
- Conceptual knowledge
- Procedural knowledge
- Metacognitive knowledge
||Create: Reorganize elements into a new pattern, structure, or purpose (Generate, plan, produce)|
|Evaluate: Come to a conclusion about something based on standards/criteria (Checking, critiquing, judging)|
|Analyze: Subdivide content into meaningful parts and relate the parts (Differentiating, organizing, attributing)|
|Apply: Use procedures to solve problems or complete tasks (Execute, implement)|
|Understand: Construct new meaning by mixing material with existing ideas (Interpret, exemplify, classify, summarize, infer, compare, explain)|
||Remember: Retrieve pertinent facts from long-term memory (Recognize, recall)|