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Center for Faculty Excellence

Master Teacher Program (MTP)
Bloom's Taxonomy

The original structure of Bloom’s Taxonomy of the thinking or cognitive domain (Bloom, Engelhart, Frost, Hill, & Krathwolh, 1956):

  • Lower-Level Objectives:
    1. Knowledge: Remembering, recognizing, repeating information, without necessarily understanding, using, or changing it.
    2. Comprehension: Being able to describe information; does not require relation to other information.
    3. Application: Using a general concept to solve a particular problem.
  • Higher-Level Objectives:
    1. Analysis: Critical look at the parts of a whole; being able to break information down into its parts.
    2. Synthesis: The use of information in a new way; the ability to create something new by combining different ideas.
    3. Evaluation: Judgment of the value of information, or judgment of the use/application of different methods in a specific situation.

Higher level objectives require mastery of lower level objectives.

  1. Evaluation
  2. Synthesis
  3. Analysis
  4. Application
  5. Comprehension
  6. Knowledge
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

The first major revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy was published in 2001 (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). The six basic levels have been reordered and three names were changed to reflect the cognitive processes involved. As well, the model is now two-dimensional, and includes 4 kinds of knowledge, which are acted upon by 6 kinds of cognitive processes. The new model also emphasizes action verbs to promote effective design of tests and assignments.

  • The new model includes four kinds of knowledge:
    1. Factual knowledge
    2. Conceptual knowledge
    3. Procedural knowledge
    4. Metacognitive knowledge
  • The new model includes six cognitive processes:
    1. Remembering
    2. Understanding
    3. Applying
    4. Analyzing
    5. Evaluating
    6. Creating
Higher-order skills Create:  Reorganize elements into a new pattern, structure, or purpose (Generate, plan, produce)
Evaluate:  Come to a conclusion about something based on standards/criteria (Checking, critiquing, judging)
Analyze:  Subdivide content into meaningful parts and relate the parts (Differentiating, organizing, attributing)
Apply:  Use procedures to solve problems or complete tasks (Execute, implement)
Understand Construct new meaning by mixing material with existing ideas (Interpret, exemplify, classify, summarize, infer, compare, explain)
Lower-order skills Remember:  Retrieve pertinent facts from long-term memory (Recognize, recall)